Updated: Jul 11, 2021
Process of formation of Cyclone :
Step 1 :
Large Sea surface having surface water with a temperature higher than 27 degrees Celsius causes the air over it to heat. The hot air then rises to create a Low-pressure area on the sea surface.
As Hot air rises above it starts to cool and condense to form clouds high up (around 10km) in the troposphere.
Step 3 :
As time progress the low pressure that was initially build up by warm air rising up continues to enhance. Since air moves from high pressure to low pressure, more and more air comes to the low-pressure region created, gets warm, rises upwards thereby intensifying the low-pressure region. As the low-pressure region intensifies the clouds formed by the cooling of air rise in height to around 12-15km in the troposphere.
As the warm air rises upwards from the surface of the sea, Coriolis force comes into play and starts to act on the warm wind. This causes the wind to deflect and rotate creating an eye of the cyclone. As seen from the top the wind rotates in a clockwise direction in the southern hemisphere and anti-clockwise in the northern hemisphere. This is the mature and final stage of the cyclone and this intensifies with low pressure created. The rotation speed depends on the speed of the rising wind and the Coriolis force acting on the wind.
Conditions for formation of cyclones :
Large sea surface with a temperature higher than 27° C.
Presence of the Coriolis force.
Small variations in the vertical wind speed (Tropical cyclones develop when the wind is uniform)
A pre-existing weak low-pressure area or low-level cyclonic circulation.
Upper divergence above the sea level system. ( So that rising air currents within the cyclone continue to pump out and low pressure is maintained)
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